An Introduction to Plato – Part Two
The Apology offers a description of the philosophical existence of Socrates in the way that he presented it prior to the Athenian jury throughout his defence. Crito was compiled for the duration of the imprisonment of Socrates to debate regardless of whether an personal citizen is ever justified in refusing to obey the state. As the Dialogues progress, the fashion of them alterations, with the Middle Dialogues nonetheless using Socrates but possessing more of Plato’s conclusions on philosophical points.
For instance in the Meno dialogue, Plato specifics the Scoratic notion that nobody ever knowingly does incorrect but he also introduces the doctrine of recollection in an try to learn regardless of whether or not virtue can be taught and the Phaedo establishes the Platonic notion of the Kinds in support of a series of arguments that claim to demonstrate the immortality of the human soul. Undoubtedly the most renowned of the Middle Dialogues is the Republic, it begins with a Socratic conversation about the nature of justice top Plato into a debate about the virtues of justice, wisdom, courage and moderation in both people and in society as a whole.
In the Late Dialogues, such as the Sophist, Statesman and Philebus, Plato began to detail a new philosophical method in which the philosopher collects all instance of some generic category that have common characteristics and then divides them into precise types right up until they can no lengthier be even more divided.
As the Late Dialogues progress, the Socratic function is lessened even more and further till he is small far more than a mute bystander, eventually getting to be totally absent.
Philosophy Of Plato
Plato is renowned as one of the world’s greatest philosophers. Born in 429 BC around the time of the death of Pericles, he lived for nearly eighty years up until the period that began with the birth of Alexander the Great. He belonged to an aristocratic Athenian family who were by the standards of those days relatively rich. A large number of Plato’s relatives played an active role in Athenian politics, but this was an activity that Plato himself shied away from.
During his youth he became fascinated by the teachings and thoughts of Socrates, so much so that he attended the academy that Socrates set up. Plato was only thirty years old when Socrates was killed in prison for committing crimes against the gods.
Though incredibly distressed by the death of Socrates, Plato set about writing down the conversations he had held with his teacher. Today, most of what we know about Socrates, the man and his thinking, comes from the texts created by Plato.
Over time, he began to develop his own concepts and ideas relating to philosophy. One of his most famous works is “The Republic”. This is a text that describes his thoughts on how a better government could be formed than that what was in power in Athens at the time.
As was common amongst the ancient philosophers of that age he was not a fan of democracy. It was his impression that uneducated people should not have a say in electing officials that were to govern. He put forward a suggestion that the most intellectually accomplished in society should be those that hold power and make decisions. A cynic may say that due to his upbringing amongst the aristocracy he would always suggest that the elite class should govern.
Plato had a passion for the natural world and how biological systems interact and develop. He believed that all matter and thoughts had a perfect form. One of the most famous methods he used to explain his concepts was a metaphor relating to a cave.
He suggested that if there was a cave inside which there were a group of men chained up against a wall and they could only see the back of the cave and no more, all that would be visible to them would be shadows, and these shadows encompassed all reality. He proposed that if one of these cave prisoners was to escape and take in the beauty of the outside world, if he then returned to visit the remaining captives and tell them what existed outside, it is likely that he would be told that he was crazy and perhaps even hallucinating.
Plato suggested that we are all very similar to those men stuck in a cave. We believe that we know everything about the world and existence, but we are trapped in our bodies just as the men in the story were trapped on a cave. It was his mission to help people make more sense of the real world, both in practical and theoretical ways.